Years ago we watched a German thriller on TV: the bull of Tölz.
"We can do that too", I said to Ruth, the Bernese Oberland at least offers more than Tölz.
"Then do it," said Ruth, my wife and lover.
The autumn and spring volumes of a series of novels based on four books are finished, were posted here for a while and are now available as electronic books - clicking on the title opens the corresponding link.
I am pleased with interest and echoes, and I am grateful if you tell her otherwise.
I know exactly what will be in the summer band, and the winter band is in the works - here is the provisional cover as an appetizer:
If we can not stand something, we find an expression for it. That claimed a good two generations ago Herbert Marshall McLuhan, He was a Canadian, so he was not at home in the German language, which clearly shows the pressure and its letting go of "expression."
However, the Anglo-American equivalent "expression" with its Latin background has the same characteristics as the German expression. "The closer you look at a word, the further it looks back," found in these contexts Karl Krauswho wrote as a writer in Vienna a good generation before McLuhan - the two should have known nothing about each other.
McLuhan based his assertion that any human form of expression was the result of unbearable inner pressure, not with an approximation of the term, to use another descriptive term. McLuhan argued cultural-historical and literary, similar to the way how Jean Gebser, a contemporary of McLuhan in Bern - even the two should have known nothing about each other.
As a cultural-historical findings here about Stone Age archaeological remnants of mundeless human figures, which are suddenly replaced by faces with mouths; or the ancient story of the legendary King Cadmus, who sows dragon teeth and harvests warriors, but also exercises power and control with the alphabet he sows in Greece. Or paintings that never reveal any perspective until the Middle Ages and suddenly open up the space.
And there as a literary finding about the lonely Friedrich Nietzschewho etched: "That anyone may learn to read, in the long run not only spoils the writing, but also the thinking". Or the comments of the West African Nobles modupe, In the early 20. From his writingless culture, he found himself amazed by a classically humanistic education, and in the face of books he said that the characters on the pages were words captured. "Everyone could learn to decipher the symbols and release the captured words in speech."
Which, to some extent, provides a solid basis: words are clearly defined and delineated, and they must follow one another linearly in order to open up to the reader (no longer on paper, which is of crucial importance - see below). But even if words open up in a linear sequence and form, there remains a boundless space of interpretation: as Plato first comprehensively explained, the picture emerges in the eye of the observer, the idea is platonic and a fragmentary idea of reality.
From this, without further ado, the myth, according to ancient Greek dictionary "sound, word, speech, narration, fabulous story, mar." So to put it to the line and put into a thought: Each expression has two pages at first glance - the one supposedly given to him by the person expressing it, and the one given to him by the receiving person.
At a second glance, the spaces of interpretation come into play, supposedly halting: how clearly does the person express himself, how well is she heard? And what about my third party? This is far less banal than it may seem: Since time immemorial, it has been a battleground for interpretive sovereignty, which at the same time is intensifying in the present generations (cf above title page of Schweizer Illustrierte) and fundamentally transformed.
Global networking, which enables everyone to send and receive all messages to all, makes it difficult to interpret as well as the growth of non-alphabetic, ideographic systems, especially in Chinese and in emojis.
Lastly, the word is a place; who tells, counts - and who understands, stands. But as I said - always just about.
Plato was "in all his pursuit of the ideal school, not noticed that Athens as a school was more important than the university of his dreams," wrote Herbert Marshall McLuhan 1964 in «Understanding Media», a still largely misunderstood standard work on media.
According to McLuhan, the philosopher did not realize that the medium is the message - that is, that the whole "Athenian school" as a medium had, as it were, the same effect Plato wanted. McLuhan explains, "The biggest school was already ready for human use before it was conceived," McLuhan said, "they've been running long before they're made."
Forgotten trees overlook the forest
In retrospect, it is clear that Plato was barely able to gauge the historical significance of the "Athens School" because he was trapped in petty thoughts, in competition with his contemporaries Aristotle or Dionysius, in political strife over the tyrant Archytasin, in family and social struggles over his own marriage and childlessness maybe? Conversely, it remains similarly difficult to understand that even here and now we can not have enough flight altitude to realize enough: "Reality is what we will never fully understand," it finally brought about David Graeber to the point.
The usual ideas of the media, as they are in German-speaking countries Friedemann Schulz of Thun In this sense, being prominently represented is childlike in the best sense: here communicators or broadcasters who, by means of the media, give messages to recipients or recipients - with different levels working in each case. This is basic simplicity: I as a communicator write something that you as a recipient read - but perhaps can not understand or do not want to or misunderstand in my sense or what the levels of reality and perception are more.
By which we approach the core of the poodle - and in the poodle invented by Goethe, it is superficially superficial that such a zealous as simple-minded scholar, and subtly the treachery of Mephisto. Thus, in the "Fist" the altitude or depth of thought that leads beyond the childish simplicity to the abstract and the intellectual, which we like to presuppose here.
Mass communication for each one individually
A finding from this is the fundamental change of the communicator with regard to the media landscape: So far, the media have largely stood for mass media and communicators for that everything is silent and one speaks, that has changed - and almost nobody perceives it.
The one-way and mass communication is technically outdated, now everyone can communicate with everyone. That was inconceivable just a few decades ago. Of course, McLuhan wrote 1964, PCs or smartphones lay one more generation and more in the future: "In the current age of electricity, we are seeing more and more transformed into the form of information and a technical extension of consciousness."
With the new media "making it possible to store and transfer everything," McLuhan 1964 continued to explore the future that is our present. However, according to McLuhan, digitization, in contrast to earlier techniques, is "total and all-embracing" - with consequences: "A general grant or conscience is now as necessary as a personal consciousness."
Here the message McLuhan can be understood ideologically, but it should be technical: less a moral call to the communicators and recipients to become conscious and conscientious in the individual and in the collective, as a technical consistency. McLuhan goes so far in these contexts that he becomes vague. With regard to the numbers, which he combines as a medium with the sense of touch, he speculates: "Perhaps tactile sensation is not mere contact of the skin with things, but the life of things in the spiritual itself."
Make conscious or conscious
In the simpler contexts that are the subject of these lines, it may be sufficient to be aware of the simple functions of communicator and recipient, message and medium, thus making them aware. But continuing are only the more extensive effects that are in the functions as the Scholar and Mephisto in Faust's poodle.
The simple point of view, according to which a communicator as an active part carries a message to the recipient by means of a medium, falls short: At least since physics has proven that light is body and impulse at the same time, or that parts under observation change their behavior, then the argument with more compelling effects of communication. Proper application and suggestions by name Sigmund Freud to mass psychology or from George Orwell For mass communication, it helps the communicator and the recipient, and thus both sides of embassies and the media, to grasp the arbitrary events.
Since man himself is a medium that carries moral messages, a moral orientation is unavoidable, in particular Friedrich Nietzsche has set out. But thanks to Menschen Medienwerke, the world has meanwhile become a village, McLuhan noted. As a result, personal concern as a communicator, recipient, and carrier of messages is global, and therefore the whole world is in the spotlight.
But this is a similar excessive demand as the perception of the subconscious and the unconscious. But when we recognize and acknowledge this overburdening, we are no longer that childish simplicity that just as pleasurably and unconsciously destroys building blocks as civilizations - yes, the whole world. McLuhan was confident he drew 1964's "Golden Age picture as a world of complete metamorphosis or transfer of nature into human art" that will open up to man.
It would be nice.
The whole language is "a simulation model," said the Canadian literary scholar Hugh Kenner, And of course, only documents could do justice to this model, he explained: "As the mathematical system contains all sorts of arithmetic operations, all possible (...) expressions are contained in the system of language."
When we talk about messages, we mostly talk about language: "I hear the message," cries Faust to the choirmaster, "I alone lack faith"[he doubts Christianity. But as inconspicuous, self-evident and serious as it is that messages can only function in their media, it is so inconspicuous, natural and serious that understanding the message is not simply given.
Dumb media, uncomprehending messages
"The soul is tied to its body and fused with it, forced to see reality through the body as through bars, rather than through its own unobstructed view," complained 2300 years ago Platon: Who is blind, can not perceive visual messages, in the vacuum it screams inaudibly. And moreover, the image emerges in the eye of the beholder, perception is individual reality - and Reality overall, something we can never fully perceive.
Since the systems of the scripture have made it possible to transport messages over time, corresponding systems have developed a dominance. Particularly successful were systems in which the interpretation of the messages is relatively uncontroversial: in advance, the natural sciences with their measurable and repeatable phenomena.
These systems, which are based on the laws of nature and have clearly understandable messages, contributed substantially to the technical development. At the same time, however, their dominance has always been and still is controversial, and it has always been clear that there are many other systems where a binding perception is controversial.
"I was not able to discover the cause of these properties of gravity from phenomena, and I formulate no hypotheses," put Isaac Newton in the frame of his messages: "What is not derived from the phenomena is to be called a hypothesis, and hypotheses, whether metaphysical or physical, whether occult qualities or mechanical, have no place in experimental philosophy."
Cold on the head, hot on the stomach
To determine, as it were, the degree of perception of messages Herbert Marshall McLuhan as an analogy the system of temperatures proposed. According to this, the more engagement, the more intellect is required for the perception of the corresponding messages, the colder media, that is, message-carrying systems: In order to understand a mathematical message, abstraction is indispensable. A photograph, however, or a backdrop of sounds in the form of a musical message recognizes every child - and in contrast to the cool medium, in the hot medium the perception is located far more sensuously-culturally than mathematically-logically.
The fact that something is "cool" or "hot" does not come by chance. That the messages here are clear at the same time and that they can not be scientifically positioned, but neither. "By their fruits you will know them"[, already reminds the bibel and proposes a method to avoid treacherous messages.
The mathematical-logical imponderability of many systems and their messages make them unsuitable for the natural sciences. In psychology and its experimental arrangements, however, the phenomenal effect of hot messages has always been proved. Jean Gebser has proposed four areas of constant action: an archaic field that has no or at most an odor-animal dimension; a magical field that has an acoustic dimension in which everyone belongs and everything is interconnected; a mythical field that has a linguistic dimension that makes us correspond and tell us; and a rational field that has a visual dimension lets us see and understand.
Design of messages
Above all, politics and advertising are looking for messages that are as hot as possible: "Sex sells" is just as commonplace as it is superficial and profound. Everyday, but far less striking than suggestive, are methods such as the perceptual management of governments or corporations. The standard work has written in this regard George Orwell: In the novel «1984» In a literary system, the Briton comprehensively conveys the message of how the perception of people is to be influenced.
The analysis of messages and their media, the research of the grammar of these systems shows how much a fundamental debate is lacking: people may address the flood of messages; they react promptly, instinctively or impulsively, to this and that message from left or right, to this and that system of Mac or PC, to this and that person who conveys a rhythmic message from Eminem to Shakira.
But although messages and media not only affect our everyday lives, but also our attitudes, even the confrontation with the media itself is rather superficial: The discussions revolve around objectivity or fake, the future of newspapers or business models on the Internet.
However, the grammar of messages, hence the above considerations, are hardly an issue. In the German-speaking area, where allegedly To live poets and thinkers, the ignorance goes so far that "understanding media", simply the standard work of this grammar, has not been published in German for years.